Tag Archives: javan gibbon

04Apr/22

Stingless Bee Honey Farming for Javan Gibbon Conservation Livelihood Program

a stinglessbee hive box, among agro-forest habitat of Mendolo

Beekeeping has been named by the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as one of the best sources of livelihood for communities in forested areas. Beekeeping provides two types of benefits that complement each other, the first economic, via the sale of the products thus generated, and the second ecological, by bees helping with pollination. For this reason, SwaraOwa have made promoting beekeeping one of our priorities for those communities living around the habitat of the Javan gibbon in Petungkriyono and Lebakbarang Districts, Pekalongan Regency, Central Java.

In Mendolo Village (Lebakbarang District), stingless bee honey farming – otherwise known as meliponiculture – has had a presence for a few years now. It all started with efforts to catalogue local bee species, which formed the basis for work on demonstration plots and on local outreach to explore the feasibility of keeping stingless bees in the area. Over the past year, several villagers have started rearing these bees, especially the species Heterotrigona itama.

stingless bee Heterotrigona itama

On March 25, 2022, SwaraOwa was assisted by the Young Farmers’ Association (Paguyuban Petani Muda, PPM) Mendolo in conducting a training session on stingless bee honey farming for the residents of Mendolo. It had originally been scheduled for the previous year, but the pandemic caused delays. A total of 21 villagers took part in the event, which comprised interactive discussions about the techniques used in keeping stingless bees and the residents’ progress with their bee colonies.

Rohim, one of the locals who took part, said that the main problems he faced was bee colonies losing their vitality and not yielding honey that could be harvested immediately. “I’d tried moving the bee colony several times but ended up failing. The bees seem to have all flown off,” he said, opening the discussion. Several other villagers faced the same problem.

Mendolo Beekeepers meet up

When the time came for the successful breeders to share their experiences, a lively discussion revealed that the culprit behind weakened colonies proved, in most cases, to be mistakes made when relocating the bees. “It is not that the whole colony had flown off, they were just short of winih (worker bees, ed.). This means that the bees hadn’t been relocated properly,” said Tarjuki, who, in the meantime, has succeeded in raising about 25 stingless bee colonies. Moving colonies inappropriately causes many worker bees to be unable to find their way home.

Aside from how colonies are moved around, the location of hives is also crucial. The ideal location is shady, but not densely packed with vegetation. Sunlight must still be able to reach the hive and there has to be enough air circulation so as not to trigger the growth of fungi that can harm the bees. On the other hand, if the vegetation is too sparse, the bees will be prone to attack by swallows and other birds.

Beekeepers should check on their bee colonies at least once a week. This is important, because nuisance species such as beetles, spiders and black ants have to be promptly removed to prevent them from attacking the colony and disrupting the supply of honey. Also, several kinds of parasite can destroy bee colonies and cause beekeeper huge losses.

Tarsono, another beekeeper, talks about his experiences from the previous season. He emphasises that only reasonable amounts of honey should be harvested to still leave the colony with a sufficient supply of food. This is especially relevant in the lead-up to the rainy season, when the flowers that the bees feed on become scarce. The attendees were encouraged to plant a variety of plants that bloom throughout the year. These flowers can help the bees tide over their ‘famine’ months.

The participants then looked at how to design the ideal beehive. The brood box for laying eggs is 15x15x15 cm. On top of it, a topping is installed as the honey compartment. By separating the brood and honey boxes, honey can be harvested without disturbing the bee colony too much. Harvesting should be done with an electric suction device to maintain cleanliness. This will also speed up honey production because honeycombs are not taken away and the bees can reuse the material.

At this event, SwaraOwa distributed practical manuals on stingless beekeeping. This book summarises the knowledge we had gained by doing research on demonstration plots over the past few years, supported by data from various sources. We hope for this book to serve as an additional reference for the community, so that they can continue developing the beekeeping industry they have pioneered.

Ultimately, this training session has equipped the Mendolo beekeepers with essential knowledge on how to prepare themselves for the dry season this year. It is then that the forest flowers bloom. If the villagers succeed in this year’s harvest, honey season will soon be upon us.

Written by : Sidiq Harjanto, Translated by T.T Chan

21Dec/21

Honey Bees in the forest habitat of the Javan gibbon

Focussing especially on Pekalongan regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, our work to conserve the Javan gibbon (Hylobates moloch) mainly aims to support the sustainable production and marketing of coffee grown in the shade of forest trees (i.e. coffee agroforestry). However, since 2017, we have also launched a project that makes use of bees in the area to build and strengthen local livelihoods.

The SwaraOwa team’s very own bee specialist, Sidiq Harjanto, started this project by first compiling a list of the species  of bees found in the Sokokembang forest. He then did fieldwork at selected sites with different habitat types and altitudes to find out which species were present where. At the same time, he also researched which activities locals were already engaging in that related to bees. One of these, the harvesting of honey in the dry season, proved an interesting tradition to study and develop for sustainable use. In February 2017, we published a brief report detailing which species of bees were found in the area (read here). We concurrently started conceptualising projects to cultivate these bees. These projects centred around several villages near the forest habitat of the Javan gibbon, in Sokokembang, Tinalum, involving several species of stingless bees and the stinging bee Apis cerana in Setipis hamlet. All of these sites are in the Petungkriyono sub-district.

Because Javan gibbons inhabit the forests of the Lebakbarang sub-district, Mendolo village has become one of the focal points of our beekeeping project focused on stingless bees. One of the more important stingless bee species there is Heterotrigona itama, popular for its high yield of honey. To date, several community groups have used these bees for forest-friendly investments that have given them bountiful returns.

Beekeeping in and around the forest takes up a minimal amount of land, because it can be done in conjunction with forestry or agricultural activities in general. Unlike other livestock, bees can find their own food. The forest keeps them well supplied with nectar and pollen, which they store in their hives as honey and beeswax. By tirelessly visiting flowers, bees help to pollinate plants. It has been shown that in this, bees and other pollinating insects crucially support the production of fruits and other food crops, as well as help regenerate forests.

 

11Dec/20

Nyanyian Owa Jawa : diva di tengah rimba

Oleh : Nur Aoliya , email :  nuraoliya@apps.ipb.ac.id

Owa jawa (Hylobates moloch) di hutan Sokokembang, Petungkriyono

 “Emang ada Owa Jawa di Pekalongan?” itu pertanyaan pertama saya saat mendengar program konservasi owa jawa oleh Coffee and Primate Conservation Project atau sekarang lebih dikenal SwaraOwa  di desa sukokembang, kecamatan petungkriyono kabupaten pekalongan tahun 2014. Sampai sekarang tahun 2020 masih ada orang yang mempertanyakan akan hal itu, bahkan orang pekalongan sendiri ada yang tidak tahu kalo ada Owa Jawa di Pekalongan.

Salah satu yang unik dari owa adalah suara atau nyanyiannya, bak sebuah lagu. Baik owa betina maupun jantan dapat bersuara, namun waktu dan tipe suaranya berbeda. Owa jantan cenderung bersuara sebelum fajar sedangkan Owa betina cenderung bersuara setelah terang dan kadang siang hari. Jenis-jenis owa menghasilkan  nyanyian lagu yang keras dan panjang yang sebagian besar dipamerkan oleh pasangan yang telah kawin. Biasanya, pasangan menggabungkan nyanyian ini  (repertoire) dalam interaksi vokal, tepat waktu, dan kompleks untuk menghasilkan  pola duet yang baik.1

Perbedaan waktu bersuara Owa Jawa ini, kenapa seperti itu juga belum banyak yang meneliti. Di dunia hanya Owa dari Jawa dan Owa dari Mentawai dimana antara jantan dan betina tidak menyanyi bersama.

Sonogram , visualisasi suara owa jawa

Lebih menarik lagi suara yang dinyanyikan owa betina pada pagi hari yang disebut great call, karena suaranya sangat khas. Suaranya dimulai dengan suara “waa” dengan interval lambat yang semakin cepat sampai ke lengkingan panjang dan diakkhiri dengan interval yang semakin melambat.  Mungkin karena itulah satwa ini lebih dikenal sebagai owa-owa/ uwek-uwek karena suarnya terdengar melafalkan kata tersebut. Suara betina selain khas juga memiliki peranan sangat penting, yaitu sebagai tanda daerah teritorinya. Setiap kelompok owa memiliki area yang digunakan sebagai tempat mencari makan, istirahat, reproduksi, dan segala aktifitasnya. Area tersebut akan dijaga dan tidak akan mengijinkan owa dari kelompok lain untuk memasuki area mereka. Tugas owa betina ini menyiarkan batas-batas areanya melalui suaranya tiap pagi.

Lantas bagaimana owa tau bahwa ini suara betina yang mana? Dan dari kelompok mana? ini menjadi daya tarik saya untuk mepelajari variasi great call owa di sokokembang sebagai skripsi yang didukung oleh Swaraowa. Ternyata setelah saya mempelajari lebih lanjut baik secara literature maupun penelitian langsung setiap suara betina ini memiliki perbedaan. Perbedaanya dapat kita lihat dengan cara memvisualisasikan suara nyanyiannya, dan perbedaan yang utama  dari nadanya, durasinya dan frekuensinya (lihat gambar dan video). Seperti suara manusia yang berbeda-beda sehingga kita bisa membedakan manusia hanya dari suaranya tanpa melihat wujudnya kan? owa jawa juga begitu.

Saat ada satu betina yang bersuara maka akan memancing betina lain akan bersuara.  Antar betina yang beda kelompok tidak akan bersuara bersamaan alias bergantian, agar pesan  masing-masing kelompok tersampaikan. Biasanya betina remaja akan belajar bersuara bersama induk betinanya, tapi kadang suaranya masih nanggung atau tidak seharmoni induknya. Owa tidak akan bersuara saat hujan atau malam harinya hujan. Soalnya suaranya akan lebih sulit terdengar oleh kelompok lain dan butuh energi lebih saat hujan.  Jadi dari pada energi terbuang sia-sia untuk bersuara lebih baik digunakan untuk menghangatkan badan. Sama seperti kita kalo hujan juga penginya rebahan ajah, tidak  buang-buang energi.

Demikianlah sebagian fakta unik tentang owa jawa. Mudah-mudahan owa jawa dimanapun khususnya di Petungkriyono akan tetap lestari,  owa membantu regenerasi alami pohon-pohon alam, kita butuh hutan  dan owa jawa sebegai satu kesatuan, menikmati udara segar, air sungai yang deras dan jernih, sumber ekonomi dan  ilmu pengetahuan  yang harus kita rawat dan kelola dengan bijaksana. Menikmati nyanyiannya di hutan setidaknya akan memberikan rasa kedamaian diantara riuhnya suara-suara gemuruh pembangungan anthroposentris , nyanyian Owa seperti diva di tengah belatara, yang menunjukkan bahwa hutan tempat hidupnya masih terjaga. Melestarikan owa jawa dan hutan sama sajah menjamin kehidupan untuk manusia generasi selanjutnya.

 

Daftar Pustaka

  1. Geissmann, T. dan V. Nijman. 2001. Calling Behaviour of Wild Javan Gibbons Hylobates moloch In Java, Indonesia dalam Forest (and) Primates. Conservation and ecology of the endemic primates of Java and Borneo. Tropenbos Kalimantan Series